Related Scholarship

A selective bibliography of works related to William Apess, Native Peoples of the Northeast, primary source materials related to Apess’s life and times, and relevant Native American and Indigenous Studies criticism.

Early Native Writers

• Barry O’Connell, On Our Own Ground: The Complete Writings of William Apess, A Pequot, ed. Barry O’Connell (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1992).
Black Hawk, The Life of Black Hawk or Ma-ka-tai-me-she-kia-kiak, ed. J. Gerald Kennedy (New York: Penguin, 2008).
• David Cusick, Sketches of Ancient History of the Six Nations: Comprising First–A Tale of the Foundation of the Great Island (Now North America), The Two Infants Born and the Creation of the Universe, Second—A Real Account of the Early Settlers of North America and their Dissenstions, Third—Origin of the Kingdom of the Five Nations, Which was Called a Long House, the Wars, Fierce Animals &c. (Lewiston: Tuscarora Village, 1828).
• Joseph Johnson, To Do Good to My Indian Brethren: The Writings of Joseph Johnson, 1751-1776, ed. Laura J. Murray (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1998).
• John Norton, Journal of Major John Norton, ed. Carl F. Klink and James J. Talman (Toronto: The Champlain Society, 2011).
• Samson Occom, The Collected Writings of Samson Occom, Mohegan, ed. Joanna Brooks (New York: Oxford University Press, 2006).

Scholarly Books Featuring William Apess
• Carl Benn, Native Memoirs from the War of 1812: Black Hawk and William Apess (Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 2014).
• Lisa Brooks, The Common Pot: The Recovery of Native Space in the Northeast (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2008).
• Philip F. Gura, The Life of William Apess, Pequot (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2015).
• Maureen Konkle, Writing Indian Nations: Native Intellectuals and the Politics of Historiography, 1827-1863 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004.
• Arnold Krupat, The Voice in the Margin: Native American Literature and the Canon (Irvine: University of California Press, 1989).
• Drew Lopenzina, Through an Indian’s Looking-Glass: A Cultural Biography of William Apess Pequot (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2017).
• Jean M. O’Brien, Firsting and Lasting: Writing Indians out of Existence in New England (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2010).
• Barry O’Connell, On Our Own Ground: The Complete Writings of William Apess, A Pequot, ed. Barry O’Connell (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1992).
• Philip H. Round, Removable Type: Histories of the Book in Indian Country, 1663-1880 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2010).
• Cheryl Walker, Indian Nation: Native American Literature and Nineteenth-Century Nationalisms (Durham: Duke University Press, 1997).
• Robert Warrior, The People and the Word: Reading Native Nonfiction (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2005).
• Ron Welburn, Roanoke and Wampum: Topics in Native American Heritage and Literatures (New York: Peter Lang, 2001).

Scholarly Articles and Essays on Apess
• Anne Marie Dannenberg, “‘Where Then Shall We Place the Hero of the Wilderness’ William Apess’s “Eulogy” on King Philip and Doctrines of Racial Destiny,” Early Native American Writing, New Critical Essays. ed. Helen Jaskoski. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996).
• Theresa Strouth Gaul, “Dialogue and Public Discourse in William Apess’s Indian Nullification,” American Transcendental Quarterly, 15:4 (Dec. 2001).
• John J. Kucich, “Sons of the Forest: Environment and Transculturation in Jonathan Edwards, Samson Occom and William Apess,” Assimilation and Subversion in Earlier American Literature, ed. Robin DeRose (Newcastle: Cambridge Scholar’s Publishing, 2008).
• Drew Lopenzina, “William Apess was Born Here: Marking William Apess on Our Geographical and Historical Maps.” Studies in American Indian Literature, slated for summer 2018.
• Drew Lopenzina, “Letter from Barnstable Jail: William Apess and the Memorial of the Mashpee Indians,” Journal of Native American and Indigenous Studies, Fall 3:2 (2016): 105-127.
• Drew Lopenzina, “Shadow Casting: Survivance and the Problem of Historical Recovery,” Gerald Vizenor: Text and Contexts, Eds. Deborah Madsen and Robert Lee (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2010), 208-230.
• Drew Lopenzina, “What to the American Indian is the Fourth of July?: Looking Beyond Abolitionist Rhetoric in William Apess’ Eulogy on King Philip.” American Literature, Dec. 82:4 (2010): 673-699.
• Mark J. Miller, “’Mouth for God’: Temperate Labor, Race, and Methodist Reform in William Apess’s A Son of the Forest,” Journal of the Early Republic, 30:2 (Summer 2010), pp. 225-251.
• Barry O’Connell, “’Once More Let Us Consider’: William Apess in the Writing of New England Native American History,” After King Philip’s War: Presence and Persistence in Indian New England, ed. Colin G. Calloway (Hanover, NH: University Press of New England, 1997).
• Daniel Radus, “Apess’s Eulogy on Tour: Kinship and the Transnational History of Native New England,” Studies in American Indian Literature, Vol. 28, No. 3 (Fall 2016), pps. 217-243.
• Nancy Shoemaker, “Race and Indigeneity in the Life of Elisha Apes,” Ethnohistory 60:1 (Winter 2013), pps. 28-50.
• Karem M. Tiro, “Denominated ‘SAVAGE’: Methodism, Writing, and identity in the Works of William Apess, A Pequot,” American Quarterly, Vol. 48. No. 4 (Dec. 1996).
• Rochelle Raineri Zuck, “William Apess, the ‘Lost Tribes,’ and Indigenous Survivance,” Studies in American Indian Literature 25:1 (Spring 2013), 4.

Scholarly Books on Native Peoples of the Northeast
Early Native Literacies in New England: A Documentary and Critical Anthology, ed. Kristina Bross and Hillary E. Wyss (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2008).
• Carl Benn, The Iroquois in the War of 1812 (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1998).
• Kathleen J. Bragdon, Native People of Southern New England 1500-1650 (Norman OK:University of Oklahoma Press, 1996).
• Birgit Brander Rasmussen, Queequeg’s Coffin: Indigenous Literacies and Early American Literature (Durham: Duke University Press, 2012).
• Barbara W. Brown and James M. Rose, Black Roots in Southeastern Connecticut, 1650-1900 (Detroit: Gale Research Co., 1980).
• Lisa Brooks, Our Beloved Kin: A New History of King Philip’s War (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2018).
• Margaret M. Bruchac, Savage Kin: Indigenous Informants and American Anthropologists (Phoenix: University of Arizona Press, 2018).
Dawnland Voices: An Anthology of Indigenous Writing from New England, Ed. Siobhan Senier (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2014).
• Christine M. DeLucia, Memory Lands: King Philip’s War and the Place of Violence in the Northeast (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2018).
• Sharon M. Harris, Executing Race: Early American Women’s Narratives of Race, Society, and the Law (Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 2005).
• Laurence M. Hauptman, Seven Generations of Iroquois Leadership: The Six Nations Since 1800 (Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 2008).
• Brad D. E. Jarvis, The Brothertown Nation of Indians: Land Ownership and Nationalism in Early America, 1740-1840 (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2010).
• Lepore, Jill. The Name of War: King Philip‘s War and the Origins of American Identity (New York, Vintage Books, 1998).
• Drew Lopenzina, Red Ink: Native Americans Picking up the Pen in the Colonial Period (Albany: SUNY Press, 2012).
• William DeLoss Love, Samson Occom and the Christian Indians of New England (Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 2000).
• Earl Mills Sr. and Alicja Mann, Son of Mashpee: Reflections of Chief Flying Eagle, A Wampanoag (North Falmouth, MA: Word Studio, 1996).
• Jean M. O’Brien, Dispossession by Degrees: Indian land and Identity in Natick, Massachusetts 1650-1790 (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1997).
• Amy E. Den Ouden, Beyond Conquest: Native Peoples and the Struggle for History in New England (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2005).
• Arthur C. Parker, The History of the Seneca Indians (Port Washington, NY: Ira J. Friedman Inc., 1926).
• Ann Marie Plane, Colonial Intimacies: Indian Marriage in Early New England (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2000).
• Neal Salisbury, Manitou and Providence: Indians, Europeans, and the Making of New England, 1500-1643 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1982).
• Frank Speck and Eva Baker, Eastern Algonquian Block-Stamp Decoration: A New World Original or an Acculturated Art (Trenton: Archeological Society of New Jersey, 1947).
• Laura M. Stevens, The Poor Indians: British Missionaries, Native Americans, and Colonial Sensibility (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2004).
• Alan Taylor, The Civil War of 1812: American Citizens, British Subjects, Irish Rebels, and Indian Allies (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2010).
• Melissa Jayne Fawcett, Medicine Trail: The Life and Lessons of Gladys Tantaquidgeon (Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 2000).
• Karim M. Tiro, The People of the Standing Stone: The Oneida Nation from the Revolution through the Era of Removal (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2011).
• Paul A. W. Wallace, White Roots of Peace: The Iroquois Book of Life (Santa Fe: Clear Light Publishers, 1994).

Scholarly Articles on Native People of the Northeast
• Lisa Brooks, “At the Gathering Place,” American Indian Literary Nationalism (Albuquerque, University of New Mexico Press, 2006).
• Ruth Wallis Herndon and Ella Wilcox Sekatau “Colonizing the Children: Indian Youngsters in Servitude in Colonial Rhode Island,” Reinterpreting New England Indians and the Colonial Experience, ed. Colin G. Calloway and Neal Salisbury (Boston: The Colonial Society of Massachusetts, 2003).
• Drew Lopenzina, “‘The Whole Wilderness shall Blossom as the Rose’: Samson Occom, Joseph Johnson and the Question of Native Settlement on Cooper’s Frontier.” American Quarterly, Dec. 58: 4 (2006): 1119-1145.
• David Menschel, “Abolition without Deliverance: The Law of Connecticut Slavery 1784-1848,” The Yale law Journal 1:183 (Sept. 2001).
• Arthur C. Parker, “The Iroquois Uses of Maize and Other Food Plants,” Parker on the Iroquois, ed. William N. Fenton (Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 1968).
• Chief Irving Powless Jr., “Treaty Making,” Treaty of Canandaigua 1794: 200 Years of Treat Relations between the Iroquois Confederacy and the United States, ed. G. Peter Jemison and Anna M. Schein (Santa Fe: Clear Light Publishing, 2000).
• Margaret Ellen Newell, “The Changing Nature of Slavery in New England, 1670-1720,” Reinterpreting New England Indians and the Colonial Experience, ed. Colin GCalloway and Neal Salisbury (Boston: The Colonial Society of Massachusetts, 2003).
• Daniel Radus “Printing Native History in David Cusick’s Sketches of Ancient History of the Six Nations,” American Literature 86:2 (June 2014), pp. 217-243.
• Trudi Lamb Richmond and Amy E. Den Ouden, “Recovering Gendered Political Histories: Local Struggles and Native Women’s Resistance in Colonial Southern New England,” Reinterpreting New England Indians and the Colonial Experience, ed. Colin G. Calloway and Neal Salisbury (Boston: Colonial Society of America, 2003).
• David J. Silverman, “The Impact of Indentured Servitude on the Society and Culture of Southern New England Indians, 1680-1810,” The New England Quarterly 74:4 (Dec. 2001), 622-666.
• Gladys Tantiquidgeon and Jayne G. Fawcett, “Symbolic Motifs on Painted Baskets of the Mohegan-Pequot,” A Key into the Language of Woodsplint Baskets, ed. Ann McMullenand Russell G. Handsmen (Washington, CT: American Indian Archaeological Institute, 1987).

Other Scholarly Books on Indigenous Culture and History
• Kevin Bruyneel, Third Space of Sovereignty: The Postcolonial Politics of US—Indigenous Relations (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2007).
• Thomas King, The Truth about Stories: A Native Narrative (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2003).
• Scott Richard Lyons, X-Marks: Native Signatures of Assent (Minnesota: University of Minnesota Press, 2010).
• Charles W. Mills, The Racial Contract (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1997).
• Gerald Vizenor, Fugitive Poses: Native American Indian Scenes of Absence and Presence (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1998).
• Robert Warrior, Tribal Secrets: Recovering American Indian Intellectual Traditions (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1995).

Pequot Scholarship and History
The Pequots in Southern New England: The Fall and Rise of an American Indian Nation, ed. Laurence M. Hauptman and James D. Wherry (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1990).
• Alfred A. Cave, The Pequot War (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1996).
• Lyon Gardener, “Gardener’s Narrative,” The History of the Pequot War, ed. Charles Orr. (Cleveland: Helman Taylor Co., 1897).
• Drew Lopenzina “The Pequot War,” 50 Events That Shaped American Indian History; An Encyclopedia of the American Mosaic, Eds. Donna Martinez and Jennifer L. Williams Bordeaux (Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood Press, 2016), 91-108.
• John Mason, “A Brief History of the Pequot Warr,” History of the Pequot War, ed. Charles Orr (Cleveland: Helman-Taylor Co., 1980).
• Charles R. Stark, Groton Connecticut, 1705-1905 (Stonington: The Palmer Press, 1922).
• William Wallace Tooker, Cockenoe de Long Island: John Eliot’s First Indian Teacher and the story of his career from the early records (New York: Francis Harper, 1896).
• John Underhill, Newes From America (New York: De Capo Press, 1971).

Historical Works of Interest
Jesuit Relations and Allied Documents: Travels and Explorations of the Jesuit Missionaries in New France, 1610-1791, ed. Reuben Gold Thwaites, Trans, Finlow Alexander, Percy Favor Bicknell, William Frederic Giese, Crawford Lindsay, William Price (New York: Pageant Book Company, 1959).
• “Massachusetts Body of Liberties (1641),” http://history.hanover.edu/texts/masslib.html.
• William Bradford, Of Plymouth Plantation, ed. Caleb Johnson (United States: Xlibras Corp., 2006).
• John Eliot, “New England’s First Fruits,” John Eliot’s Indian Dialogues: A Study in Cultural Interaction, ed. Henry W. Bowden and James P. Ronda (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1980).
• Edward Everett, An Address Delivered at Bloody Brook In South Deerfield, Sept. 30, 1835 in Commemoration of the Fall of the “Flower of Essex” At That Spot in King Philip’s War, Sept. 18 (O.S.) 1675 (Boston: Russell, Shattuck and Williams, 1835).
• Benjamin F. Hallett, Rights of the Marshpee Indians (Boston: J. Howe Printer, 1834).
• John Halloway Hanson, The Lost Prince: Fact Tending to Prove the Identity of Louis The Seventeenth, of France, and the Rev. Eleazar Williams, Missionary Among the Indians of North America (New York: G. P. Putnam and Co., 1854).
• Washington Irving, “Knickerbocker’s History of New York,” The Complete Works of Washington Irving, Vol I.
• Charles G. Leland, Algonquian Legends of New England: Myth and Folk Lore of the Micmac, Passamaquoddy, and Penobscot Tribes (Boston: Houghton, Mifflin and Co., 1884).
• Increase Mather, A Relation of the Troubles which have hapned in New-England By reason of the Indians there (New York: Arno Press, 1972).
• Arthur Parker, “The Constitution of the Five Nations,” Parker on the Iroquois, ed. William Fenton (Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 1968).
• Benjamin Trumbull, A Complete History of Connecticut Civil and Ecclesiastical from the Emigration of its First planters from England in the Year 1630 to the Year 1764 and to the Close of Indian Wars (New Haven: Maltby, Goldsmith and Co. and Samuel Wadsworth, 1818).
• J. Hammond Trumbull, ED., The Public Records of the Colony of Connecticut, Prior to the Union with New Haven Colony (Hartford: Brown & Parsons, 1850).
• Roger Williams, A Key into the Language of America (Bedford, MA: Applewood Books, 1936).
• Edward Winslow, Good News from New England: A Scholarly Edition, ed. Kelly Wisecup (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2014).
• Roger Williams, The Complete Writings of Roger Williams: The Letters of Roger Williams, Vol. VI (Eugene, Oregon: Wipf & Stock, 1963).
• Edward Winslow, Mourt’s Relation, A Relation or Journall of the Beginning and Proceeding of the English Plantation Setled at Plimoth (London: John Bellamie, 1622).
• John Winthrop, Winthrop’s Journal: History of New England, 1630-1649, Vol. 1 (United States: Elibron Classics, 2005).

Books and Articles on Colrain, MA
A Sketch of the Origin and Growth of the Catamount Hill Association of Colrain, MA, ed. Dr. A.F. Davenport and Charlotte Augusta Dunton (North Adams, MA: Walden & Crawley Printers, 1903).
• William Tyler Arms, History of Leyden, Massachusetts, 1676-1959 (Orange, MA: The Enterprise and Journal, 1959).
• Elmer F. Davenport, The Puzzle of Catamount Hill: Being a Report of Pioneer Life in Franklin County, Massachusetts During the Century after the War of Independence, 1780-1880, (self-published 1969).
• Dr. A. F. Davenport, “Reminiscence of a Barefoot Boy,” A Sketch of the Origin and Growth of the Catamount Hill Association of Colrain, MA, Dr. A. F. Davenport and Charlotte Augusta Dunton, ed. (North Adams, MA: Walden & Crowley Printers, 1901).
• Charles H. McClellan, Early Settlers of Colrain, Massachusetts (Greenfield, MA: W.S. Carson, 1885).
• Lois McClellan Patrie, A History of Colrain Massachusetts with Genealogies of Local Families (Salem, MA: Higgenson Book Co., 1974).
• Lois McClellan Patrie and Ursula Russell, A History of Colrain, Massachusetts with Genealogies of Early Families (Salem, MA: Higgenson Book Co., 1974).
• Fanny B. Shippee, “Rhythmical Reminiscences of Catamount Hill,” A Sketch of the Origin and Growth of the Catamount Hill Association of Colrain, Massachusetts Compiled by Dr. A. F. Davenport and Miss Charlotte Augusta Dunton of North Adams, Massachusetts (North Adams: Walden & Crawley Printers, 1901).
• Carl G. Smith, From Homesteads to Cellar Holes on Catamount Hill, Colrain, Massachusetts. New England Historical and Genealogical Register, Vol. 96 (1942).

Other Works of Interest
• James Fenimore Cooper, The Last of the Mohicans (New York: Bantam Books, 1989).
• John Augustus Stone, Metamora, The Last of the Wampanoag (New York: Feedback Theaterbooks & Prospero Press, 1996).